Thursday, December 20, 2018

Season's Greetings


As 2018 comes to a close, we would like to take this opportunity to thank you for your support and interest in the knowledge hub in critical facilities. We look forward to connecting with you - the IT, Facilities and Design professionals - again in the coming year. To see what’s just around the corner, please subscribe to this knowledge hub or visit our official website.


May your holiday season be filled with joy, happiness and success.
Merry Christmas and a Prosperous New Year 2019!



Wednesday, December 12, 2018

2-day Classroom Training in Critical Facilities Design + Data Center Technical Visit

A BIG THANK YOU to the fellow participants who attended our 2-day instructor-led training course in Data Centre Facilities Design and Infrastructure Engineering during 29 - 30 November 2018. The course details about data center infrastructure system that supports critical services and prepares individual to understand the main components that facilitate the whole system’s design & build, international standards and best practices.

  

Following the 2-day classroom training in critical facilities design, our Data Center Technical Visit was completed on 7 December 2018. The visit provided an interactive environment for the data center / infrastructure engineers to exchange professional views and experience on mission critical facilities and IT services involved.

  
 
  


Strategic Media Asia (SMA) -
Connecting IT, Facilities and Design

SMA combines with professional Chartered Engineers (CEng) from the Institute of Engineering Technology (IET), the Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) and the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (HKIE). Our engineers have more than 20 years experience in data centre design & build, building services engineering and energy conservation in the private and public sectors.

The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of data center and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience, through various training courses, industry events and technical seminars. We prepare the engineers and IT personnel to face any challenges in data centers and criitcal facilities of any size, in any location.

For details, please visit www.stmedia-asia.com.



Tuesday, December 4, 2018

(16th Round) Preparatory Course to Become a Registered Specialist Contractor (Ventilation Works) - RSC(V)

Further to the data center & critical facilities design courses, the team is going to launch a preparatory course which helps engineers / enterprises to facilitate compliance with the Buildings Ordinance and to become a Registered Contractors in Ventilation Works in Hong Kong.

Last update on  4 December 2018

Preparatory Course to Become a Register of Specialist Contractors
(Sub-register of Ventilation Works Category) - RSC (V)

16th Round

Date: 12 and 19 January 2019 (Saturday)
Time: 9:00 - 13:00 / 13:30
Venue: HKBU School of Continuing Education (SCE), 136A Nathan Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Exit B1, Tsim Sha Tsui Station or Exit D, Jordan Station)



The course is designed for ventilation and air-conditioning engineering company's Technical Director (TD), Authorized Signatory (AS) or other officers successfully becoming a registered specialist contractor (ventilation works category).



Please refer to the Practice Note for Registered Contractors (Appendix F) issued by the Buildings Department for the Requirements (1 to 3) on Qualifications and Experience for Registration as a Specialist Contractor (RSC) in the Ventilation Works Category (Alternative Requirement 4 and 5 are no longer accepted).



Participants will familiarize themselves with the interview technique, application strategies, Buildings Ordinance, ventilation and fire safety regulations, occupational safety and health and environmental protection, ventilation / air-conditioning specialized knowledge, etc. within short time and up to a professional standards of ventilation engineer.


For syllabus and content, please visit our website:

Course Details (Chinese) or 
Course Details (English)

Please download the preparatory course's application form at http://www.stmedia-asia.com/images/aircon.pdf




About SMA

Strategic Media Asia (SMA), a critical infrastructure training and event organizer, provides an interactive environment and opportunities for members of engineers to exchange professional views and experience on critical infrastructure and electrical and mechanical facilities.
For other data center design and critical facilities courses, please visit our website at http://www.stmedia-asia.com/trainings.html.


  



註冊專門承建商(通風系統工程類別)預備課程


課程簡介

專門為通風及冷氣工程公司的關鍵人士:技術董事 (TD) 、獲授權簽署人 (AS) 或其他高級人員 (OO) 而設計,旨在幫助公司順利申請成為註冊專門承建商(通風系統工程類別)。

學員將會在短時間內熟習面試要點、建築物條例、通風及消防法例、職業安全健康與環保、通風及冷氣的專門 知識,並達至通風及冷氣工程師的專業水準。



關鍵人士的最低資格和經驗規定 〈 第 1、2 或 3 項 〉,可參考屋宇署網頁 《 註冊承建商作業備考 38 》- 附錄 F 〈註:現時已不接受 4 或 5 項的資格及經驗。〉



修讀條件

對相關註冊及考核事宜有興趣者均可參加。



修讀內容

- 一般建築承建商和專門承建商的註冊事宜
- 註冊承建商作業備考 (PNRC)
- 通告函件
- 香港法例第 123 章建築物條例
- 香港法例第 123J 章建築物(通風系統)規例
- 香港法例第 132CE 章附表所列處所通風設施規例
- 香港法例第 95 章消防條例
- 防火閘、過濾器及聚塵器實務
- 通風 / 空氣調節控制系統實務
- 年檢證書
- 職業安全健康與環保
- 面試技巧



課程資料

日期:2019 年 1 月 12 日 及  1 月 19 日 ( 星期六 )
時間:9:00 - 13:00 / 13:30 (每節 4 - 4.5 小時, 合共約 8 - 9 小時)
地點:香港浸會大學持續教育學院 - 香港九龍彌敦道 136 號 A 
( 尖沙咀 地鐵站 B1 出口 / 佐敦 地鐵站 D 出口 )


授課語言:粵語 (輔以 中 / 英文講義)
報名表格:按此下載 或瀏覽課程網頁 (http://www.stmedia-asia.com/aircon.html)





主講導師

Ir Edmund Fok
BEng(Hons), MSc, PFM, REA, RSO, CEnv, CEng, FCIBSE, FSOE, FIPlantE, MHKIE

擁有二十多年豐富冷氣通風、消防、水務、電力及建築工程經驗及十多年教學經驗,並是註冊專門 承建商 (通風系統工程) 獲授權簽署人、第 1 , 2 & 3 級註冊消防裝置承辦商合資格人士、一級水喉匠、註冊電業工程人員 (級別: C0 H0)、註冊小型工程承建商獲授權簽署人和註冊能源效益評核員。 



主辦機構

Strategic Media Asia Limited (SMA)

由多位經驗豐富的英國註冊工程師組成,榮獲 英國屋宇裝備工程師學會 (CIBSE) 認可,提供持續專業發展短期課程 / 進修時數 (Approved CPD Course Provider),定期舉辦不同程度的關鍵設施課程、專業研討會及論壇,旨在提供合適的交流機會予機電工程師、屋宇裝備工程師、通訊及資訊科技界專業人士等等,同時提供關鍵設施及數據中心設計技術及知識。

詳情可瀏覽  www.stmedia-asia.com 。



Monday, October 29, 2018

"Tier 3+" or "Tier 4-Ready" Data Centers?



This is usually found in some data center specifications: "Tier III+" or "Tier IV-Ready" *

Let's clarify: There is no such thing as "Tier III+" or "Tier IV-Ready" for large data centers. They are not granted by any organizations in data center / critical facilities like Uptime Institute or Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) - ANSI/TIA-942 **.


* The latest TIER IV-Ready Certification by the Uptime Institute is designed for modular data centers which enjoy the same level of reliability and resiliency that they have in their larger data centers.

** The term ‘Tier’ was used in the ANSI/TIA-942 Standard until the ANSI/TIA-942: March-2014 edition. In the March 2014 edition the term ‘Tier’ has been replaced by either ‘Rated’ or ‘Rating’.


Recap (1) More about Data Center Tier Levels; and
(2) Data Center Tier Levels and Uptime


The Uptime Institute issues Tier Certificates (Constructed Facility and Design Documents) for data center infrastructure. When a data center is accredited as Tier III Constructed Facility, the infrastructure, at the time of the site visit and demonstrations, should be "Concurrently Maintainable" and N+1 (N means Utility Power) with 1 active + 1 alternate distribution paths (electrical power backbone) and 2 simultaneously active critical power distribution.

One of the major different between Tier III and Tier IV infrastructure is the requirement of Distribution Paths - Electrical Power Backbone. Tier IV facilities require 2N / 2N+1 which means 2 electrical power backbone should be simultaneously active. It is nearly double the infrastructure of Tier III.




Although the Uptime Institute Tier Standard or the TIA-942 Standard does not require dual feeds from different power companies to achieve Tier IV standard, is it worth to build a Tier IV data center in Hong Kong?

The situation is different. Electricity supply in Hong Kong is highly reliable, exceeding 99.999%. The two power companies, CLP and HK Electric have adequate capacity and backup in electricity generation and in the transmission and distribution networks, which assured robustness and reliability of supply. A number of high-tier data centers are being serves by two utility feeds from different substations of the same power company.

  


A Tier IV infrastructure is nearly double of the Tier III. Thus most of the large data centers in Hong Kong are usually Tier III but leave rooms / spaces for adding facilities and expansion if required in the future (ready / upgradable to Tier IV standard).


About us


SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the other design considerations, please visit 

(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion,
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems,
(12) Electrical Rooms,
(13) Generator Systems,
(14) Generator Fuel Systems, etc.

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.


Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.


Friday, September 21, 2018

Connecting the Industries Leaders in Big Data & AI Asia Conference 2018




On 4 - 5 December 2018 at Suntec Singapore Convention Centre, we are focusing on Big Data & AI topics across government, banking & finance, oil & gas, telecommunications, healthcare, manufacturing, supply chain & logistics and many other industries. This Annual Big Data & AI Asia Conference will explore the rise of intelligent, autonomous systems, the future of work and how Big Data & AI are helping to drive productivity and profitability for your businesses.


JOIN the panel discussion and explore how Big Data, AI and technology reshaping the future economy:-


• James Ong, Chief Investment Officer, YCH Group
• Shen Shengmei, General Manager, Panasonic R&D Center
• Laurence Liew, Director, AI Industry Innovations, AI Singapore
• Dr. Xin GAO, Head of Innovation Hub, Asia, GRUNDFOS Holding A/S
• Johnson Poh, Head of Data Science, DBS Bank
• Vivek Kumar, Assistant Director-General, National Trades Union Congress


PLUS many other leaders in Big Data & AI >>

DOWNLOAD AGENDA > Discover the Full Program: www.bigdataasiashow.com/2018/program




REGISTER NOW & SAVE 20% FOR FULL CONFERENCE PASS (2-DAY) > Only Limited Seats Available:

www.bigdataasiashow.com/2018/register
Use Promotion Code: BDAI20 or directly click http://bit.ly/2IwLQCl


For Group Discount (3 or more Passes), please contact hmurugesan@corp-agency.com


We look forward to seeing you in the event!








Air-Conditioning System Design for Critical Infrastructure (2-day)
(8 and 9 November 2018 - Approved CPD Course by CIBSE UK)


Further to the featured conference above, a 2-day course will be launched in Hong Kong for engineers who design or handle MVAC (Mechanical Ventilation and Air-Conditioning) equipment for mission-critical buildings / data center projects.

The course highlights design principles such as psychrometric chart, cooling load calculation / estimation, etc. and the design considerations such as air distribution, availability / redundancy, common mistakes, Computer Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model, integration with MEPs (Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing systems), etc.


You'll be able to make informed decisions about the best choices of cooling systems for mission-critical purposes and how system can best meet your project goal and SLA (Service Level Agreement).


Date: 8 and 9 November 2018 (Thursday - Friday)
Time: 10:00 - 17:30

Venue: 19/F, Officeplus (New Victory House), 93 - 103 Wing Lok Street, Sheung Wan, HK
(Exit A2, Sheung Wan Station)

Fee: Special Rate applies for

(1) the HKIE / CIBSE or all professional membership classes in engineering; or
(2) more than 1 enrollment made at the same time.



> Datacom Equipment Power Trends and Cooling Applications

  -- Load trends and their application
  -- Air cooling of computer equipment
  -- Liquid cooling of computer equipment


> Design Consideration

  -- Design criteria
  -- HVAC load
  -- Computer room cooling
  -- Air distribution
  -- Liquid cooling
  -- Availability and redundancy
  -- Controls
  -- Integration with other MEP (Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing) system
  -- Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD)


> Testing and Commissioning

  -- Air cleanliness test
  -- Heat load test
  -- Factory acceptance test
  -- Site acceptance test
  -- Integrated performance test (IST)


> Energy Efficiency

  -- Power usage effectiveness
  -- Chilled water plant optimization
  -- Water side and air side equipment
  -- Part load operation
  -- Controls and energy management
  -- LEED certified data center
  -- Building energy code


> Sustainable Design

  -- Combined heat power plant (CHP)
  -- Solar cooling
  -- Geothermal cooling
  -- Evaporative cooling
  -- Air side economizers
  -- Desiccant unit


For details, please visit www.stmedia-asia.com/newsletter_6.html.




About us


Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the other design considerations, please visit 

(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion,
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems,
(12) Electrical Rooms,
(13) Generator Systems,
(14) Generator Fuel Systems, etc.


All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.


Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Become a Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) for the Design, Implementation, Integration and Project Management of Cabling Infrastructure



Cabling infrastructure design is complex. That’s why it is essential that you have someone on your team who understands all aspects of this highly technical area.


A Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) is an individual who has demonstrated knowledge in the design, integration and implementation of telecommunications and data communications technology systems and related infrastructure. These individuals are uniquely positioned to create the detailed design of a new system and/or integrate design into an existing structure. The RCDD is one of the highest design credentials in the information technology systems (ITS) industry, recognized worldwide.


Why is an RCDD critical in the building design process?

An RCDD has been taught the importance of achieving an efficient, cost-effective, future-ready system, no matter what the stage of the project:-


Initial Planning Stage: An RCDD has learned how to create a smart design, evaluating the proper amount of space needed today and for years to come. By minimizing costly change orders, an RCDD can save you valuable time and money.

Mid-project: RCDDs who manage the infrastructure instal-lation can guide the design so that it is followed correctly and make any necessary modifications as needed.

Project Completion: An RCDD adds credibility to a project by signing off when the project is complete.


RCDDs are required to demonstrate proficiency across a wide range of areas within structured cabling systems, including network, outside plant, wireless and electronic safety and security design, data centers and building auto-mation systems (BAS). This expanded knowledge enables the RCDD to advise the owner/end user of the appropriate IT, AV and security requirements. The RCDD has learned to perform the design tasks related to these systems, including construction drawings and specifications.

Current standards and best practices' requirements, including standards established and/or contributed to by: BICSI, Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA), American Institute of Architects (AIA) and Construction Specifications Institute (CSI), are fully taken into account by the RCDD.





Include an RCDD on Your Project Design Team

An RCDD’s ability to assess a building owner’s telecommunications needs, and to design and implement a plan that allows for imminent growth, can allow your team to design a highly efficient technology system with minimal costs for later upgrades.



CORE TRAINING FOR RCDD IN HONG KONG
DD102: Designing Telecommunications Distribution System


Date:
 3 to 7 December 2018 (5-day, Monday to Friday)
Time: 9:30 - 18:00 (around 1 hour lunch break)
Venue: 19/F, Office Plus, 93 - 103 Wing Lok Street, Sheung Wan, Hong Kong


Exclusive for the training in Hong Kong:- 

Our 5-day training already includes all training materials and a digital copy of Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual (TDMM), 13th edition, with more than 1900 pages.


Complete and return the BOOKING FORM online for seat reservation. For the RCDD program details in Hong Kong, please visit www.stmedia-asia.com/rcdd.html.



About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the other design considerations, please visit 

(1) Site Selection,
(2) Space Planning,
(3) Cooling,
(4) Redundancy,
(5) Fire Suppression,
(6) Meet Me Rooms,
(7) UPS Selection,
(8) Raised Floor,
(9) Code & Standards,
(10) Transformers and Harmonic Distortion,
(11) Multi-mode UPS Systems,
(12) Electrical Rooms,
(13) Generator Systems,
(14) Generator Fuel Systems, etc.


All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.





Tuesday, September 4, 2018

Learn MVAC (Mechanical Ventilation and Air-Conditioning) Design for Critical Infrastructure and Data Center





Air-Conditioning System Design for Critical Infrastructure (2-day)
(8 and 9 November 2018 - Approved CPD Course by CIBSE UK)



This is a 2-day training for engineers who design or handle MVAC (Mechanical Ventilation and Air-Conditioning) equipment for mission-critical buildings / data center projects.

The course highlights design principles such as psychrometric chart, cooling load calculation / estimation, etc. and the design considerations such as air distribution, availability / redundancy, common mistakes, Computer Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model, integration with MEPs (Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing systems), etc.


You'll be able to make informed decisions about the best choices of cooling systems for mission-critical purposes and how system can best meet your project goal and SLA (Service Level Agreement).


Date: 8 and 9 November 2018 (Thursday - Friday)
Time: 10:00 - 17:30
Venue: 19/F, Officeplus (New Victor House), 93 – 103 Wing Lok Street, Sheung Wan, HK
Fee: Special rate for CIBSE / HKIE all membership classes

 
> Datacom Equipment Power Trends and Cooling Applications


  -- Load trends and their application
  -- Air cooling of computer equipment
  -- Liquid cooling of computer equipment
  -- Air cooling of computer equipment
  -- Liquid cooling of computer equipment
 
> Design Consideration


  -- Design criteria
  -- HVAC load
  -- Computer room cooling
  -- Air distribution
  -- Liquid cooling
  -- Availability and redundancy
  -- Controls
  -- Integration with other MEP (Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing) system
  -- Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
 
> Testing and Commissioning


  -- Air cleanliness test
  -- Heat load test
  -- Factory acceptance test
  -- Site acceptance test
  -- Integrated performance test (IST)
 
> Energy Efficiency


  -- Power usage effectiveness
  -- Chilled water plant optimization
  -- Water side and air side equipment
  -- Part load operation
  -- Controls and energy management
  -- LEED certified data center
  -- Building energy code
 
> Sustainable Design


  -- Combined heat power plant (CHP)
  -- Solar cooling
  -- Geothermal cooling
  -- Evaporative cooling
  -- Air side economizers
  -- Desiccant unit


For details, please visit www.stmedia-asia.com/newsletter_6.html.






Get Ready to Become a Registered Specialist Contractor (Ventilation)

(15 and 22 September 2018 - 15th Round)


Designed for enterprises in ventilation / air-conditioning engineering - Technical Director (TD), Authorized Signatory (AS) or other officers, the course introduces the register requirement, interview technique, Buildings Ordinance, ventilation and fire safety, occupational safety, health and environmental protection, etc.

It helps engineers and enterprises to facilitate compliance with the Buildings Ordinance and to get ready to become a Registered Specialist Contractor for Ventilation Works (RSC-V).


Date: 15 and 22 September 2018 (Saturdays)
Time: 9:00 - 13:00 / 13:30

Venue: Room 201, 2/F, School of Continuing Education (SCE), Hong Kong Baptist University,
136A Nathan Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Exit B1, Tsim Sha Tsui Station or Exit D, Jordan Station)



The RSC-V preparatory course is also available online - www.stmedia-asia.com/aircon.html.




Enrollment & Registration


Kindly complete and return an Application Form for seat reservation. Online Registration is also acceptable. Your seat will be confirmed once the payment is allocated. Thank you.
 


About the Organizer


Strategic Media Asia Limited (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The mission is to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for the members of critical facilities industry and building services engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

For details, please visit www.stmedia-asia.com/about.html.



P.S. Think your team might also be interested? Pass it on ›



Strategic Media Asia Limited

Connecting IT, Facilities and Design

T (852) 2117 3893  |  F (852) 2184 9978
Room 403, 4th Floor, Dominion Centre, 43 - 59 Queen's Road East, Hong
Kong


http://www.stmedia-asia.com  |  http://green-data.blogspot.com 





Monday, September 3, 2018

Designing Generator Fuel Systems (4)

Referring to the Designing Generator Fuel Systems (1), (2) and (3), let's summarize to form a whole picture.

The successful design of a backup generation system is critical to maintaining business continuity, sustaining critical operations, and life safety in the event of a serious power outage (see "Fuel system design checklist"). Without proper design and ongoing maintenance, fuel oil systems cannot meet the needs of the gensets they serve, and therefore, cannot guarantee the assumed reliability of the facility's backup power.


Fuel System Design Checklist
When designing fuel oil systems, remember


  • Provide foot valves (to maintain pump prime), anti-siphon valves (to prevent accidental leakage), and fusible link shutoff valves (for fire safety).
  • When calculating pump suction lift, assume the worst-case scenario (i.e., a nearly empty tank).
  • When calculating friction losses through the fuel oil distribution system, assume the worst-case scenario (i.e., viscosity corresponding to the lowest anticipated fuel temperature).
  • If fuel temperature is anticipated to fall below its cloud point, provide a means of heating (tank heaters, space heaters, pipe heat trace, etc.)
  • Ensure storage tanks are equipped with adequate ports to accommodate pipe connections, sensors, vents, switches, etc.
  • Using auxiliary tanks if necessary




Consider Using Auxiliary Tanks When

  • The main tanks are located more than 50 ft away from the gensets
  • The main tanks are located more than 12 ft below the gensets
  • The main tanks are located above the gensets

Fuel Oil Design Cheat Sheet

Refer to this cheat sheet for important considerations when designing a fuel oil system:


  • No. 2 fuel oil NFPA Classification: Class II
  • Genset fuel consumption: approximately 7 gph/100 kW rating
  • Atmospheric pressure: 30 in. Hg (mercury column)
  • Minimum recommended pressure at external pump inlet: 15 in. wc
  • Pressure of 2.6 ft of No. 2 fuel oil: 1 psi.




Runtime Requirements

Runtime requirement for emergency power supply systems, according to NFPA 110: Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems include:


Class 0.083: 0.083 hours = 5 minutes
Class 0.25: 0.25 hours = 15 minutes
Class 2: 2 hours
Class 6: 6 hours
Class 48: 48 hours
Class X: other times (application, code, or user dictated)



About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the other design considerations, please visit 

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.



Designing Generator Fuel Systems (3)

So far we consider (1) Runtime Criteria; (2) Storage; (3) Pumping; (4) Fuel Cooling; (5) Piping; and (6) Fuel Maintenance of the generator fuel system. Let's further look into the

(7) Fuel Filling
(8) System Controls
(9) Applicable Codes and Standards


Filling the Tank


During the design process, it is important to determine what type of delivery truck the fuel-oil vendor will use. Fuel-oil trucks are either a gravity or a pump type (i.e., equipped with an integral fill pump).




Both types of trucks can accommodate USTs and ASTs located at an elevation lower than the truck. Pump trucks are ideal for filling ASTs at higher elevations. Gravity trucks are optimal for filling USTs. However, when the fuel storage tank is at a higher elevation than the truck, a gravity type truck alone won't work. For such applications, an option is a remote fill system with an integral fuel transfer pump that can enable gravity trucks to fill ASTs at a higher elevation. Remote fill systems are equipped with gauges and sensors to aid and alert the operator during the delivery process.

Extreme considerations must be accounted for as well because the need for fuel oil could happen in an emergency state. For example, it is common for a fuel oil vendor to promise one type of truck, but then in the event of a city-wide power outage when everyone needs fuel, the truck isn't available. Extreme situations must be considered during fuel oil system design.


Fuel System Controls


Fuel systems typically use UL 508: Standard for Industrial Control Equipment - listed programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to control and monitor transfer pumps, storage tanks, auxiliary tanks, polishing systems, fill systems, fuel inventory, leak detection, and other related subsystems and equipment. They offer communication capabilities, such as BACnet, Modbus, and local operating networks (LonWorks) for integration with the building management system.




For critical applications, such as data centers, the control system typically uses dual independent PLCs and dual power inputs to ensure there are no single points of failure. The fuel system control architecture and sequence of operations should be reviewed in detail during the design phase. The entire scope of work associated with fuel systems (equipment, controls, startup, and training) preferably should be provided by a single vendor who specializes in that field.


Codes and Standards


Due to its combustible nature and the detrimental impact on the environment upon a leakage, fuel oil storage and system design is regulated by city, state, and federal authorities. Careful consideration to a multitude of factors is essential during design. Meeting the worst-case scenario is vital to compliance.

There also are code-mandated requirements related to maximum allowable fuel storage on the property, tank construction, spill containment, location relative to buildings and property lines, fire suppression, high-rise building limitations, and much more. The requirements are specifically stringent for applications involving indoor storage of fuel due to inherent fire hazards. Frequently, the requirements listed in various codes and standards differ significantly.


To avoid surprises at a later stage, it is beneficial to approach the authority having jurisdiction to review the proposed design early in the project - specifically with representatives from the fire department to ensure that all bases are covered.


Continue Reading: Designing Generator Fuel Systems (4)



About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the other design considerations, please visit 

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.



Designing Generator Fuel Systems (2)

Per "Designing Generator Fuel Systems (1)", we have discussed (1) Runtime Criteria; and (2) Fuel Storage. We are going to consider:-


Fuel Oil Pumping


Gensets are equipped with gear-driven pumps that pressurize fuel in the common rail of the engine. The integral pump draws fuel from the external tank. Excess fuel not injected into the cylinders is returned back to the tank. The pump has limited capability for priming and overcoming friction losses in the fuel distribution system (piping, fittings, and filters).

Usually, two types of electric-driven fuel oil pumps are used external to the genset - gear pumps and centrifugal submersible pumps:

Gear pumps: Mounted on a separate skid and typically used for low-flow, high-pressure applications, these pumps can be internal or external gear type and suitable when pressure requirements exceed 40 psi.

Submersible pumps: Used for high-flow, low-pressure applications. It require adequate clearance above the fuel tank for accessibility and maintenance, even though the majority of the pump assembly is within the tank.





Static lift and friction losses should be reviewed in detail during fuel system design. The design flow rate of the pumping system should be two to four times the peak demand so that pumps operate intermittently to fill the auxiliary tanks instead of operating continuously.


Cooling the Fuel


Excess fuel in the common rail that isn't injected into the cylinders is sent back to the tank. The return fuel is at an elevated temperature because it absorbs heat from the injectors and water jacket. When it mixes with cooler fuel in the tank, the supply fuel temperature gradually starts to rise.

For every 12 degree Celsius rise in fuel temperature above 37 degree Celsius, the engine horsepower reduces by approximately 1%. High fuel temperature also reduces its ability to lubricate the engine fuel system components. If the temperature of fuel being supplied to the engine exceeds a certain limit (typically 60 - 65 degree Celsius), the genset shuts down because of the safety cutoff. This is especially problematic when the tank volume is relatively small (e.g., auxiliary tanks) and the return fuel temperature is not reduced.



This basic fuel oil system flow schematic reveals the main fuel storage and auxiliary tanks.


Gensets with unit-mounted radiators typically are equipped with fuel coolers. They take advantage of the engine-driven radiator fan to reject fuel heat. Gensets with remote radiators typically require an external fuel cooler to reject fuel heat. Another option is to provide a return pump at the auxiliary tank and exchange fuel with the main tank (return hot fuel and replace it with cold fuel) if fuel temperature exceeds a certain setpoint. The return pumps also can be enabled manually to empty the auxiliary tank for maintenance, or via level sensor to prevent overflow conditions.


Fuel Transfer Pipes


When designing underground site piping, a nonmetallic material, such as reinforced thermosetting resin pipe is preferred due to its inherent corrosion protection. Underground piping is almost universally double-wall, and is comprised of a carrier pipe and a containment pipe. The interstitial space between the pipes is monitored with a leak detection system.




Fuel transfer pipes located above ground in accessible areas typically are single-wall carbon steel. Note that local jurisdictions and insurance carriers may require double-wall piping for aboveground applications as well.


Fuel Oil Maintenance


Fuel oil is made up of organic compounds and will gradually degrade over time due to biological growth, water accumulation, and particulate formation. This degradation, if uncontrolled, could result in clogged filters, or could negatively impact the combustion process in the generator engine.

Degradation is not a concern for applications where fuel is used on a consistent basis and a fresh stock of fuel is introduced regularly—for example, gensets used for combined heat and power applications. For standby generator applications, fuel usage is minimal due to limited runtimes as a result of periodic testing. For such applications, a fuel maintenance or polishing system can be provided for treating fuel oil periodically (usually on weekly or biweekly basis).


Continue Reading: Designing Generator Fuel Systems (3)



About us

Strategic Media Asia (SMA) is one of the approved CPD course providers of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) UK. The team exists to provide an interactive environment and opportunities for members of ICT industry and facilities' engineers to exchange professional views and experience.

SMA connects IT, Facilities and Design. For the other design considerations, please visit 

All topics focus on key components and provide technical advice and recommendations for designing a data center and critical facilities.